Campaign of the Month: August 2011
Le Ballet de l'Acier
- In March the queen, running through the galleries of the Louvre with Mme de Luynes and Mlle de Verneuil, trips and falls, resulting in a miscarriage. Louis banishes the two ladies from the queen’s court, but later relents, permitting the two young women to visit the queen. The widowed Mme de Luynes marries the duc de Chevreuse later that spring.
- The duc de Lesdiguières converts to Catholicism and is named constable of France by the king.
- In April a Huguenot army under the command of the duc de Soubise is trapped in the marshes of the Ile de Riez, near Nantes on the Atlantic coast. Thousands are killed, another thousand drown, and hundreds are taken prisoner, though the duke himself escapes. A handful of the prisoners are hanged, the rest sent to Marseille as galley slaves.
- The royal army once again turns south, forcing Huguenot towns to submit to the king or face destruction. In June, the royal army lays seige to Nègrepelisse; as retribution for the execution of royal soldiers in 1621, Louis orders Nègrepelisse sacked, and on 11 June the soldiers massacre the population, including women and children, and burn down the town.
- Under pressure from the queen mother, Louis asks the pope to make the bishop of Luçon a cardinal; on 5 September the prelate receives the red hat, after which he is styled Cardinal de Richelieu.
- In August the fortified city of Montpellier is invested by the king’s forces. Rohan begins negotiations with the king, and on 18 October the Treaty of Montpellier is signed, ending the hostilities. The Edict of Nantes is reaffirmed, Rohan is pardoned, and the cities of La Rochelle and Montauban are permitted to retain their fortifications; the walls of Montpellier are to be torn down, however. The campaigns against the Huguenots are largely successful; most of the fortified towns held by the Protestants have been forced to tear down their walls and submit themselves to the king’s rule.
Royal naval forces under the duc de Guise battle sorties by the Huguenot fleet at La Rochelle, commanded by Jean Guiton, culminating in a sharply contested but inconclusive engagment off Saint-Martin-de-Ré on 27 October.